Natural water contains various salts, These salts dissolve into cations and anions and exist in water, mainly Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and HCO3-、SO₄²¯、CL¯, and the like.
Water containing these salts, in the process of heating and evaporation ( for example boiler water), Ca2+, Mg2+ and the like is combined with some anions in water to form insoluble substances (namely scales), and scales are attached to the heated surface of boiler. Due to the poor thermal conductivity of the scale, the heat exchange is hindered, the thermal efficiency of the boiler is greatly reduced, the fuel is wasted and the components are easily burned, which could cause a security problem, result in undesirable consequences. In order to eliminate or reduce these hazards, the hardness element that may form scale in the water should be removed. Therefore, it is necessary to perform softening treatment of water. Scale-forming ions are: calcium, magnesium ions, and other high valence metal ions such as iron, aluminum, manganese, etc. (iron, aluminum, manganese are usually very little )
Several technology and process could be used for water desalination and softening, Reverse Osmosis, Ion resin exchange, mixed bed, EDI. Ultra-filtration, etc. these technologies could work separately, they could be combined and work together as well, to meet specific water quality standard and requirements.
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