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How impurities contained in raw water generally be removed?

Both surface water and groundwater sources contain a lot of impurities. There are many coarse impurities in the surface water source, but they have been removed during the water intake process, so the feed water purifying treatment generally refers to the removal of those fine impurities.

The fine impurities in the raw water are mainly dissolved salts, suspended impurities and colloidal particles in water. In general, the amount of suspended solids in the surface water is higher, and the dissolved salt content in the groundwater is higher. The salt content of brackish water and sea water is even higher.
The physicochemical methods for water treatment can be divided into three cases: one is that only physical changes occur during the treatment; the other is that only chemical changes occur during the treatment; the third is that physical and chemical changes occur simultaneously during the treatment.
Except for the biological method , all others belong to the physical chemical method.
Reverse osmosis is used to remove dissolved substances in water, ultrafiltration is used to remove macromolecules from water, and microfiltration is the physical effect of screening.
Chemical oxidation refers to the removal of organic matter, inorganic matter and impurities in water by a chemical oxidation process. The oxidizing agent for organic substances includes potassium permanganate, chlorine, ozone, and the like. The range of particle sizes of chemical oxidation and activated carbon is basically the same. Activated carbon filter is mainly used to remove organic matter from water.

Among physicochemical methods, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, chemical oxidation, and activated carbon adsorption are methods for removing dissolved substances in water. Coagulation precipitation and filtration are methods for removing colloids and larger particles.

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